Not that I’m aware of, and I’ve looked. There are really too many variables such as manufacturer, year, make, and model for this to be put together in any single cogent data base. Furthermore, the information might be contained within the vehicle identification number, or on the fender tag, cowl tag, door tag, data plate, or it may be found nowhere at all.
The good news is that the internet puts most of this information right at your fingertips, although it might take a little bit of work to find. The more popular the car, the easier the information will be to access. For example, decoding the VIN on a 1965 Corvette will be much easier than decoding the VIN on a 1935 Talbot-Lago.
There are many codes on a car, and you can attempt to decode them individually, or as a group. To decode them individually you might try a search phrase such as “1969 Road Runner B5” in which case you will discover that B5 is the code for the color Blue Fire Metallic. To decode them as a group you could try a search phrase such as “1969 Road Runner fender tag decoder” in which case you will likely find several sites that will allow you to decode your entire fender tag all at once.
Some vendors that specialize in selling parts for classic cars have excellent data bases with many codes right on their website. An example is Moss Motors (www.mossmotors.com) for classic British cars, and Year One (www.yearone.com) for classic American cars. Look in the “Tech” sections of these, and similar websites.
As part of my job I am constantly searching for sources of information on the codes of common collector cars to those that are more obscure. You, as a classic car owner, will more likely be searching for this information on one or two specific models that you own. It won’t take long before you’ve found a few favorite sites that offer all of the information that you are seeking